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The soil organic matter increased with the increasing altitude because of slower decomposition rate with increasing altitude.
This can again be owed to increasing trend of soil organic matter with increasing altitudinal range.
Tree-crop combinations and their distribution in mountainous ecosystem Land use systems/ elevation range Agriculture Code Tree-crop combinations A 1100-1400 m Wheat maize 1400-1700 m Wheat maize 1700-2000 m Pea Maize 2000-2300 m Agri horticulture Garlic maize AH Plot size m2 Net cropped Area under Area under No of trees tree ha-1 crop/ grass ha-1 Average age of tree component 50x10 1.00 - - - Annuals 1.00 - - - Annuals 1.00 - - - Annuals 1.00 - - - Annuals 50x10 1100-1400 m Plum wheat- maize 0.40 0.60 - 278 ~20 yr 1400-1700 m Apple wheat- 0.40 0.60 - 278 ~20 yr 1700-2000 m Apple pea -maize 0.40 0.60 - 278 ~20 yr 2000-2300 m Apple Garlic – 0.30 0.70 - 333 ~18 yr - 1.00 - 278 ~20 yr - 1.00 - 278 ~20 yr - 1.00 - 278 ~20 yr - 1.00 - 278 ~18 yr H 50x10 1100-1400 m Plum ,apple 1400-1700 m Apple 1700-2000 m Apple Silvi- pasture Apple SP Oln 2000-2300 m y Horticulture 50x10 1100-1400 m Pinus roxburghii grasses - 0.70 0.3 250 (Pr) ~60 yr(Pr) 1400-1700 m P wallichiana grasses - 0.70 0.3 217 (Pr) ~60 yr(Pw) 1700-2000 m Cedrus deodara grasses - 0.70 0.3 212 (Pw) ~70 yr (Cd) 2000-2300 m Cedrus deodara grasses - 0.70 0.3 218 (Cd) ~90 yr (Cd) Forest F 50x10 1100-1400 m Pinus roxburghii - 1.00 - 650 ~70 yr(Pr) 1400-1700 m P. deodara - 1.00 - 580 (Pw), 400 (Cd) ~90 yr(Pw) ~90 yr(Cd) 1700-2000 m P. deodara - 1.00 - 370(Cd), 450 (Pw) 120 yr(Pw), 140 yr (Cd) 2000-2300 m C.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION fo r M em be rs Bulk density: The bulk density (g cm-3) varied significantly under different land use system, altitudinal ranges and soil Table 1.
Soil samples were collected by dividing each main plot area into five areas each 10 x 10 m.
The soil types belong to order entisols, inceptisols and mollisol with sandy loam and clay loam texture. The forests of study area were having vegetation of temperate nature mainly the forest types 12/C1 - Low Himalayan temperate forest, 12/C16 - Mohru Oak forest, 12/C2 - Upper west Himalayan temperate forest, 12/2S1 - Low-level bluepine forest and 13/C4 - West Himalayan high level dry blue pine forest.
The abundant litter and/or pruned biomass returns to soil, combined with the decay of roots contribute to the improvement of organic matter under complex land use systems (Sharma et al., 2014). It may be due to sharp decline in the bulk density of the A2 and A4 soil layers The soil organic y carbon stock declines appreciably from 0-20 cm to 20-40 cm (Table 2). Labile carbon pools and soil organic carbon stocks in the foothill Himalayas under different land use systems. The Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is a rich reservoir of biological diversity in the world. The lower bulk density values in upper layer of soil profile may have resulted from the dilution of soil matrix (mineral matter) with lesser denser material (organic matter) and improvement in soil aggregation. Bulk density increased with the increasing depth of soil layer. The current studies further revealed that agroforestry system types integrating fruit trees as woody perennial in place of forest/ fodder tree had higher bulk density value. Chauhan Joint Secretary-cum-Treasurer Vaneet Inder Kaur Councillors S. Samples were air dried in shade, ground with wooden pestle, Bhalendra Singh Rajput, D. Higher bulk density in horticulture based system as reported in present study has also been reported by Kumar (2003).